Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs)
Mesenchymal stem cells are multipotent stem cells derived from various adult and fetal tissues that are capable of supporting hematopoiesis and differentiating into multiple lineages (osteogenic, adipogenic, chondrogenic, neurogenic, myogenic, and cardiomyogenic.)
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are among the most frequently used cell type for regenerative medicine. A large number of studies have shown the beneficial effects of MSC-based therapies to treat different pathologies, including neurological disorders, cardiac ischemia, diabetes, and bone and cartilage diseases.
Over 1,000,000 patients around the world have now been part of clinical studies or received stem cell treatment, with only minimal adverse reactions such as low grade fever for 24 hours, or trauma at the injection site. Safety profiling of MSC use in humans has been well achieved.
Features of MSCs
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are advantageous over other stem cells types for a variety of reasons. First, they avoid the ethical issues that surround embryonic stem cell research.
Second, repeated studies have found MSCs to be immuno-privileged, which make them an advantageous cell type for allogeneic transplantation. MSCs reduce both the risks of rejection and complications of transplantation.
Third, there have been advances in the use of umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells to regenerate human tissues, including cartilage, meniscus, tendons, and bone fractures, because MSCs can exert regenerative effects through homing to sites of damage, paracrine signalling, regulating immune responses, and positively affecting the microenvironment.
Mesenchymal Stem Cell Characteristics
Stem Cell Markers:
Cell surface markers are expressed on the cell surface and can be used to define cell subtypes as well as function when they are labeled with fluorescent-labeled antibodies and analyzed by flow cytometry.
MSCs are adult stem cells which identified by adherence to plastic, expression of cell surface positive markers including CD73, CD90, CD105, and negative for hematopoietic markers.
Stem Cell Differentiation:
MSCs also known as mesenchymal stromal cells or medicinal signaling cells are multipotent stromal cells that can differentiate into a variety of cell types, including osteoblasts (bone cells), chondrocytes (cartilage cells), and adipocytes (fat cells), neuronal cells, cardiomyocytes, and more.
As an international standard MSC characterization studies require 3 standard differentiation’s when analyzing MSC batch production at SC21 laboratory.
Keeping MSCs Young in Function
During culture, MSCs are expanded in numbers to reach therapeutically beneficial numbers. However, every time a stem cell divides (self-renews) it loses some of its abilities as a stem cell – stemness. In a way each time a cell divides it ages, becoming slower and less able to perform its specialist tasks. At StemCells21 we produce high grade UCMSCs – Passage 1 Mesenchymal Stem Cells (P1 MSCs).